Mireille Hildebrandt
Principal investigator

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Hildebrandt is a Research Professor on ‘Interfacing Law and Technology’ at Vrije Universiteit Brussels (VUB), appointed by the VUB Research Council. She is co-Director of the Research Group on Law Science Technology and Society studies (LSTS) at the Faculty of Law and Criminology.

She also holds the part-time Chair of Smart Environments, Data Protection and the Rule of Law at the Science Faculty, at the Institute for Computing and Information Sciences (iCIS) at Radboud University Nijmegen.

​Her research interests concern the implications of automated decisions, machine learning and mindless artificial agency for law and the rule of law in constitutional democracies.

​Hildebrandt has published 4 scientific monographs, 23 edited volumes or special issues, and over 100 chapters and articles in scientific journals and volumes.

She received an ERC Advanced Grant for her project on ‘Counting as a Human Being in the era of Computational Law’ (2019-2024).

Personal website at Berkeley Press and SSRN. See also her Google Scholar profile.


Laurence Diver
Postdoctoral researcher (law)

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Diver’s research interests concern the effects of software-based normativity, the production of such systems, and how these can and ought to be legitimated. He holds Ph.D., LL.B. (Hons, first class), and LL.M. (Innovation, Technology & Law, with distinction) degrees from the University of Edinburgh School of Law, as well as diplomas in legal practice and software development. His doctoral thesis (supervised by Professor Burkhard Schafer) considers the impact of technological architectures on individual behaviour and how those architectures might be legitimated, within the design and production process, according to precepts derived from legal theory. A monograph of the thesis will be published by Edinburgh University Press in 2021, entitled Digisprudence: Code as Law Rebooted.

He has previously worked as a research assistant for Professor Schafer as part of the UK Copyright and Creative Economy Centre (CREATe) and for Professor Lilian Edwards at Strathclyde University. Prior to his postgraduate studies he worked as a legal assistant at the Scottish Law Commission, and as a professional web developer in the private sector. Since 2013 he has been Technical Editor of SCRIPTed: A Journal of Law, Technology & Society, based at Edinburgh Law School’s renowned SCRIPT Centre.

Email Website

Frederike Zufall
Postdoctoral researcher (law)


Zufall holds a doctoral degree in law (Dr. iur.) from Humboldt University of Berlin and passed both the First and Second Legal State Exams in Germany with distinction. Being fluent in Japanese, her dissertation was a pioneering comparison of German and Japanese planning law. After a short period in private practice in Germany, she was appointed as an Assistant Professor at Waseda University, Tokyo.

Her research addresses questions of Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence through comparative law study and interdisciplinary research. Her work ranges from publications on Japanese law to joint research with computer scientists in the field of Natural Language Processing and machine learning.​

For more information, please visit her profile on Researchgate.


Emilie van den Hoven
PhD candidate (law)

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Van den Hoven holds an LLB in International and European Law from the University of Groningen. She received her LLM (research master) in Public International Law at the University of Amsterdam, in the context of which she also attended Georgetown University Law Center (2016). Her master thesis dealt with the uses of data-driven technologies in law-making processes at the international level, primarily by international organizations. She is interested in the uses of these technologies and the consequences thereof for the legitimacy of the international legal order, and how these law-making processes can be innovated responsibly to increase their legitimacy.

​During her LLM, she has worked as a research assistant on various research projects, most notably on the ERC Advanced Grant project ‘SHARES’ on shared responsibility in international law with PI Professor André Nollkaemper. She previously worked as an intern in the international law department of the Dutch Ministry for Foreign Affairs.


Paulus Meessen
Researcher (CS)

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Meessen holds a BA in Philosphy (2015) from the University of Groningen and an MSc in Computing Science (2017) from Radboud University in Nijmegen the Netherlands.

He was involved in the teaching, organization and design of courses on Numerical Methods in Mathematics, Security and Hacking, Networking and Distributed systems, and Mathematical Thinking for Computer Scientists - at various universities in the Netherlands.

Currently, as a junior researcher at Radboud University - Institute for Computing and Information Sciences (iCIS), he has contributed to research on the topics of Malware detection, Privacy, Augmented Reality, Distributed Ledger Technologies and Digital Identity.


Irina Baraliuc
Project co-ordinator

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Baraliuc holds a BA in Law (2003) from the State University in Moldova and an LLM in Law and Technology (2010) from Tilburg University in the Netherlands, and has working experience in international organizations dealing with development, human rights and democracy.

As an affiliated researcher at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in the Law, Science, Technology and Society (LSTS) research group, she has been focusing her research on the public and the private in the digital world in relation to the enjoyment of copyright protected works, and on the development of the concept of intellectual privacy.